Emily Rayfield: Publications

Most of my recent publications are open access - just follow the links. If you require a pdf of a paywalled publication send me an email and I'll send a copy by return.

In press
  • Taylor A, Lautenschlager S, Zhao Q & Rayfield EJ In press Biomechanical evaluation of different musculoskeletal arrangements in Psittacosaurus and implications for cranial function. Anatomical Record
  • Button DJ, Barrett PM & Rayfield EJ. In press Comparative cranial myology and biomechanics of Plateosaurus and Camarasaurus and evolution of the sauropod feeding apparatus. Palaeontology

  • Vinther J, Nicholls R, Lautenschlager S, Pittman M, Kaye TG, Rayfield EJ, Mayr G & Cuthill IC. 2016 3D camouflage in an ornithischian dinosaurs. Current Biology 26: 2456-2462 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2016.06.065
  • Brunt LH, Skinner REH, Roddy KA, Araujo NM, Rayfield EJ & CL Hammond. 2016 Differential effects of altered patterns of movement and strain on joint cell behaviour and skeletal morphogenesis. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2016.06.015
  • Bright JA, Marugán-Lobón J, Cobb SN & Rayfield EJ. 2016. The shapes of bird beaks are highly controlled by nondietary factors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113(19): 5352-5357. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1602683113
  • Martinez-Perez C, Rayfield EJ, Botella H, Donoghue PCJ. 2016 Translating taxonomy into the evolution of conodont feeding ecology. Geology 44: 247-250. DOI: 10.1130/G37547.1
  • Polly D, Stayton T, Dumont E, Pierce SE, Rayfield EJ, Angielczyk K 2016 Combining geometric morphometrics and finite element analysis with evolutionary modeling: towards a synthesis. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology e1111225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02724634.2016.111122

  • Caromel, AGM, Schmidt DN, Fletcher I & Rayfield EJ. 2015 Morphological change during the ontogeny of the planktic foraminifera. Journal of Micropalaeontology 35: 2-19. DOI: 10.1144/jmpaleo2014-017
  • Apostolaki NE, Rayfield EJ & Barrett PM. 2015 Osteological and soft-tissue evidence for pneumatization in the cervical column of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) and observations on the vertebral columns of non-volant, semi-volant and semi-aquatic birds. PLoS ONE 10(12) e0143834. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143834
  • Cuff AR, Bright JA & Rayfield EJ. 2015. Validation experiments on finite element models of an ostrich (Struthio camelus) cranium. PeerJ 3, e1294. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.1294
  • Brunt LH, Norton JL, Bright JA, Rayfield EJ & Hammond CL. 2015. Finite Element modelling predicts changes in joint shape and cell behaviour due to loss of muscle strain in jaw development. Journal of Biomechanics 48(12): 3112-3122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2015.07.017
  • Porro LB, Rayfield EJ & Clack JA. 2015 Computed tomography, anatomical description and three-dimensional reconstruction of the lower jaw of Eusthenopteron foordi Whiteaves, 1881 from the Upper Devonian of Canada. Palaeontology 58(6): 1031-1047. doi/10.1111/pala.12192
  • Melbourne LA, Griffin J, Schmidt DN & Rayfield EJ 2015 Potential and limitations of finite element modelling in assessing structural integrity of coralline algae under future global change. Biogeosciences 12(19): 5871-5883. doi:10.5194/bg-12-5871-2015
  • Cuff AR & Rayfield EJ 2015 Retrodeformation and muscular reconstruction of ornithomimosaurian dinosaur crania. PeerJ e1093. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.1093
  • Porro LB, Rayfield EJ & Clack JA 2015 Descriptive anatomy and three-dimensional reconstruction of the skull of the early tetrapod Acanthostega gunnari Jarvik, 1952. PLoS One 10 (3), e0118882. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118882


  • Button DJ, Rayfield EJ & Barrett PM 2014 Cranial biomechanics underpins high sauropod diversity in resource-poor environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B. 281: DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2014.2114
  • Murdock DJE, Rayfield EJ & Donoghue PCJ 2014 Functional adaptation underpinned the evolutionary assembly of the earliest vertebrate skeleton. Evolution and Development 16: 354-361. DOI: 10.1111/ede.12096
  • Lautenschlager S, Witmer LM, Altangerel P, Zanno LE & Rayfield EJ 2014 Cranial anatomy of Erlikosaurus andrewsi (Dinosauria, Therizinosauria): new insights based on digital reconstruction. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 34: 1263-1291. DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2014.874529
  • Gill PG, Purnell MA, Crumpton N, Robson Brown K, Gostling NJ, Stampanoni M & Rayfield EJ. Dietary specializations and diversity in feeding ecology of the earliest stem mammals. Nature 512: 303-305. DOI: 10.1038/nature13622
  • Foffa D, Cuff AR, Sassoon J, Rayfield EJ, Mavrogordato MN & Benton MJ 2014 Functional anatomy and feeding biomechanics of a giant Upper jurassic pliosaur (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) from Weymouth Bay, Dorset, UK. Journal of Anatomy 225: 209-219. DOI: 10.1111/joa.12200
  • Cunningham JA, Rahman IA, Lautenschlager S, Rayfield EJ & Donoghue PCJ 2014 A virtual world of paleontology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 29(6): 347-357. DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2014.04.004.
  • Neenan JM, Ruta M, Clack JA & Rayfield EJ 2014 Feeding biomechanics in Acanthostega and across the fish-tetrapod transition. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 281 1781. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2013.2689
  • Anderson PSL, Renaud, S. & Rayfield EJ 2014 Adaptive plasticity in the mouse mandible. BMC Evolutionary Biology 14(9): 85. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-14-85.
  • Lautenschlager S, Bright JA & Rayfield EJ 2014 Digital dissection – using contrast enhanced CT scanning to elucidate hard and soft tissue anatomy in the common buzzard Buteo Buteo. Journal of Anatomy 224: 412-431. DOI: 10.1111/joa.12153
  • Caromel AGM, Schmidt DS, Phillips JC. & Rayfield EJ 2014 Hydrodynamic constraints on the evolution and ecology of planktic foraminifera. Marine Micropaleontology 106: 69-78. DOI: 10.1016/j.marmicro.2014.01.002.
  • Martinez-Perez C, Rayfield EJ, Purnell MA & Donoghue PCJ 2014 Finite element, occlusal, microwear and microstructural analyses indicate that conodont microstructure is adapted to dental function. Palaeontology 57(5): 1059-1066. DOI: 10.1111/pala.12102
  • Lautenschlager S, Altangerel P, Witmer LM. & Rayfield EJ 2013 - early view. Edentulism, beaks and biomechanical innovations in the early evolution of theropod dinosaurs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1310711110
  • Stubbs TL, Pierce SE, Rayfield EJ & Anderson PSL 2013 Morphological and biomechanical disparity of crocodile-line archosaurs following the end-Triassic extinction. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 280(1770) DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2013.1940
  • Purnell MA, Crumpton N, Gill PG, Jones G & Rayfield EJ 2013 Within-guild dietary discrimination from 3-D textural analysis of tooth microwear in insectivorous mammals. Journal of Zoology 291: 249-257 DOI: 10.111/jzo.12068
  • Cobley MJ, Rayfield EJ & Barrett PM. 2013 Inter-vertebral flexibility of the ostrich neck: implications for estimating sauropod neck flexibility. PLOS ONE 8(8) e72187 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072187
  • Schmidt DN, Rayfield EJ, Cocking A & Marone F. 2013 Linking evolution and development: synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy of planktic foraminifers. Palaeontology 56(4) 741-749. DOI: 10.1111/pala.12013
  • Cuff AR & Rayfield EJ 2013 Feeding mechanics in spinosaurid theropods and extant crocodilians. PLOS ONE 8(5) e65295 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065295

  • Close RA & Rayfield EJ 2012. Functional morphometric analysis of the furcula in Mesozoic birds. PLoS ONE 7(5): e36664. Link
  • Jones D, Evans AR, Rayfield EJ, Sui KKW & Donoghue PCJ. 2012 Testing miscrostructural adaptation in the earliest dental tools. Biology Letters DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2012.0487
  • Young MT, Rayfield EJ., Holliday CM, Witmer LM, Button DJ, Upchurch P & Barrett PM. 2012 Cranial biomechanics of Diplodocus (Dinosauria, Sauropoda): testing hypotheses of feeding behaviour in an extinct megaherbivore. Naturwissenschaften 99: 637-643. DOI: 10.1007/s00114-012-0944-y
  • Cox PG, Rayfield EJ, Fagan MJ, Herrel A, Pataky TC & Jeffery N. 2012. Functional evolution of the feeding system in rodents. PLoS ONE 7(4): e36299 Link
  • Anderson PSL & Rayfield EJ Virtual experiments, physical validation: dental morphology at the intersection of experiment and theory. Journal of the Royal Society Interface DOI: 10.1098/rsif.2012.0043
  • Jones D, Evans AR, Siu K, Rayfield EJ & Donoghue PCJ. The sharpest tools in the box? Quantitative analysis of conodont element functional morphology. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2012.0147
  • Anderson PSL, Bright JA, Gill PG, Palmer C & Rayfield EJ. 2011 Models in palaeontological functional analysis. Biology Letters 8(1): 119-122. DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2011.0674


  • Cox PG, Fagan MJ, Rayfield EJ & Jeffery N. 2011. Finite element modelling of squirrel, guinea pig and rat skulls: using geometric morphometrics to assess sensitivity. Journal of Anatomy 219: 696-709. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2011.01436.x
  • Rayfield EJ. 2011. Structural performance of tetanuran theropod skulls, with emphasis on the Megalosauridae, Spinosauridae and Carcharodontosauridae. Special Papers in Palaeontology 86: 241-253. DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-4983.2011.01081.x
  • Anderson PSL, Friedman M, Brazeau MD & Rayfield EJ. 2011. Initial radiation of jaws demonstrated stability despite faunal and environmental change. Nature 476: 206-209 DOI: 10.1038/nature10207 and associated webpage
  • Bright JA & Rayfield EJ. 2011. Sensitivity and ex vivo validation of finite element models of the domestic pig cranium. Journal of Anatomy doi/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2011.01408.x
  • Bright JA & Rayfield EJ. 2011. The response of cranial biomechanical Finite Element models to variations in mesh density. The Anatomical Record. 294(4): 610-620. doi: 10.1002/ar.21358
  • Rayfield EJ. 2011. Strain in the ostrich mandible during simulated pecking and validation of specimen-specific finite element models. Journal of Anatomy. 218: 47-58. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01286.x
  • Anderson, PSL, Gill, PG & Rayfield EJ. 2011. Modeling the effects of cingula structure on strain patterns and potential fracture in tooth enamel. Journal of Morphology 272: 50-65. [Link]


  • Fletcher TM, Janis CM & Rayfield EJ. 2010. Finite element analysis of ungulate jaws: can mode of digestive physiology be determined? Palaeontologica Electronica 13(3) 21A, 15p. [Link]
  • Jasinoski SC, Rayfield EJ. & Chinsamy-Turan A. 2010. Functional implications of dicynodont cranial suture morphology. Journal of Morphology 271: 705-728 doi: 10.1002/jmor.10828
  • Jasinoski SC, Rayfield EJ. & Chinsamy-Turan A. 2010. Mechanics of the scarf premaxilla-nasal suture in the snout of Lystrosaurus. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 30(4): 1283-1288. doi: 10.1080/02724634.2010.483556

  • Pierce SE, Angielczyk KD & Rayfield EJ. 2009. Shape and mechanics in thalattosuchian (Crocodylomorpha) skulls: implications for feeding behavior and niche partitioning. Journal of Anatomy 215 555-576 doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2009.01137.x
  • Pierce SE, Angielczyk KD & Rayfield EJ. 2009. Morphospace occupation in thalattosuchian crocodylomorphs: skull shape variation, species delineation, and temporal patterns. Palaeontology 52(5) 1057-1097. [Link]
  • Jasinoski, SC, Rayfield EJ & Chinsamy A. 2009. Comparative feeding biomechanics of Lystrosaurus and the generalized dicynodont Oudenodon. The Anatomical Record 292: 862-874. 10.1002/ar.20906
  • Rayfield EJ, Barrett PM, Milner AR. 2009. Utility and validity of Triassic ‘Land Vertebrate Faunachrons’. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 29(1): 80-87. [Link]
  • Head JJ, Barrett, PM & Rayfield EJ. 2009. Neurocranial osteology and systematic relationships of Varanus (Megalania) prisca Owen, 1859 (Squamata: Varanidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 155: 445-457. [Link]

  • Rayfield EJ & Milner AC 2008. Establishing a framework for archosaur cranial mechanics. Paleobiology 34: 494-515. [Link]
  • Pierce SE, Angielczyk KD & Rayfield EJ. 2008. Patterns of morphospace occupation and mechanical performance in extant crocodilian skulls: a combined geometric morphometric and finite element modelling approach. Journal of Morphology 269: 840-864. [Link]
  • Moreno K, Wroe S, Clausen P, McHenry C, D’Amore DC, Rayfield EJ. & Cunningham, E. 2008. Cranial performance in the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) as revealed by high-resolution 3-D finite element analysis. Journal of Anatomy 212: 736-746. [Link]

  • Rayfield EJ, Milner AC, Bui Xuan V & Young PG. 2007. Functional morphology of spinosaur 'crocodile-mimic' dinosaurs. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27(4): 892-901. [Link]
  • Rayfield EJ. 2007. Finite element analysis and understanding the biomechanics and evolution of living and fossil organisms. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 35: 541-576. [Link]

  • Barrett PM & Rayfield EJ. 2006. Ecological and evolutionary implications of dinosaur feeding behaviour. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21: 217-24. [Link]
  • Evans SE, Barrett PM, Hilton J, Butler R, Jones MEH, Liang MM, Parish J, Rayfield EJ, Sigogneau-Russell D and Underwood C. 2006. The Middle Jurrasic vertebrate assemblage of Skye, Scotland. In Barrett PM, Evans SE, eds. Ninth international symposium on Mesozoic terrestrial ecosystems and biota. London, UK: Natural History Museum. 36–39.

  • Rayfield EJ. 2005b. Aspects of comparative cranial mechanics in the theropod dinosaurs Coelophysis, Allosaurus and Tyrannosaurus. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 144: 309-316. [Link]
  • Rayfield EJ. 2005a. Using Finite Element Analysis to investigate suture morphology: a case study using large, carnivorous dinosaurs. The Anatomical Record 283A: 349-365. [Link]
  • Rayfield EJ, Barrett PM, McDonnell RA & Wills KJ. 2005. A geographical information system (GIS) study of Triassic vertebrate biochronology. Geological Magazine 142: 327-354. [Link]

  • Rayfield EJ. 2004. Cranial mechanics and feeding in Tyrannosaurus rex. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B. 271: 1451-1459. [Link]

  • Rayfield EJ, Norman DB, Upchurch P. 2002. Prey attack by a large theropod dinosaur. Nature 416: 388. [Link]

  • Rayfield EJ, Norman DB, Horner CC, Horner JR, Smith PM, Thomason JJ & Upchurch P. 2001. Cranial design and function in a large theropod dinosaur. Nature 409: 1033-1037. [Link]

Books and Book Chapters
  • Rayfield EJ. 2004. Finite Element Analysis (Paleontology). In McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology pp108-110 McGraw-Hill, New York.

Popular Science Books and non-peer reviewed articles
  • Rayfield EJ, Jasinoski SC & Young MT. 2007. Using Abaqus to explore form and function in living and extinct animals. Proceeding of the 21st Abaqus UK Regional User Meeting: 171-185.
  • Rayfield EJ. 2007. ‘Allosaurus feeding habits’. p107. in The Random House Look-It-Up Book of Dinosaurs. Random House Books For Young Readers, Random House, Jersey City, NJ.
  • Rayfield EJ. 2003. Dinosaurs Connections and Axis Publishing Ltd, London.
  • Barrett PM. 2001. National Geographic Dinosaurs. Firecrest Books Ltd, Amersham, UK and National Geographic Society, Washington DC, USA. 192 pp. Contributing writer.